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はじめての WordPress

提供: WordPress Codex 日本語版
2008年4月4日 (金) 03:36時点におけるBono (トーク | 投稿記録)による版 (2 版)

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じゃ、次はなに?

WordPressの5分間インストールを楽々と終えた君。WordPressにはたくさんのステキな機能が詰まってるよ!じゃ、次はどうしよう?

それじゃ、これから君のサイトの中を一歩ずつ見て回って、いろんな機能がどんなふうに使えるかとか、どうやってWordPressのサイトを自分らしくカスタマイズするかとかを知ることにしよう!

このチュートリアルの最初の部分では、(チュートリアルの一部でない限りは)プログラムの内部のことには手をつけないでほしい。これから紹介する簡単なステップに従っていけば、そのうち君もいろんなものに手をつけられるようになるよ。

トップからはじめよう

まず、管理パネルにログインするところから始めるとしよう。ここが君のサイトの中枢部分。想像力を思いっきり爆発させて、才能あふれる文章を書いたり、最高にカッコいいWebサイトをデザインしたりする場所だ。そしてここから君のサイトを作っていくんだけど…まだここはほんの入り口だ。

管理パネルの中で、画面上部のメニューからView Site(サイト表示)を選んでみよう。どう、いい感じ?それともあんまり好きじゃないって…?まあどっちでもいいや、ちょっと眺めてみてよ。ここが、これからの数分間・数時間・数週間・数ヶ月間…君がたっぷり時間をすごすことになる場所だ。

WordPress サイトをテスト運転してみる

目の前にあるサイトをじっくり眺めてみよう。いろいろ手を加えたりぜんぶの使い方を理解したりするより前に、デフォルトのWordPressテーマがどんなふうに作られていて、どんなふうに動作するのかを知るのが大事だよ。まあ、これはいろいろな機能を付け加える前のテスト運営だと思ってみて。

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WordPress Default Theme - Kubrick

今見ているレイアウトはTheme(テーマ)っていうんだ。これが、君のサイトの見た目を決めるんだ。WordPressの“デフォルト”テーマには、一番上に君のサイトのタイトルの背景となる青色の「header(ヘッダ)」がある。“クラシック”テーマには緑っぽいヘッダがある。そして横の方にはタイトルやリンクがあるね。これが「sidebar menu(サイドバーメニュー)」だよ。そしてメインの中央部分には「post(記事)」が、下のほうには「footer(フッタ)」がある。

まず、記事部分を見てみよう。タイトルがあって、その下にはちょっとした情報があるよね。これは、post meta data(記事メタデータ)っていって、作成された日付や時間、作成者、その記事のカテゴリーなど、その記事に関する情報が含まれている。

ページを下にスクロールすると、ページの一番下にある横長のセクションに注目してみよう。これがフッター。今のところここには"Powered by WordPress"って書いてあるね。

それじゃサイドバーに戻ろうか。情報がが書かれたいろんなセクションがあるよね。ここにはページカテゴリー、過去の記事のアーカイブ、カレンダー、そして日付なんかがあるはずだ。ここはメニューやナビゲーションパネルにあたるところで、みんなが君のサイトの中のいろんなカテゴリーや時系列別の記事を見て回るために使う部分だ。

細部がすべてだ

ページレイアウトやデザインのちょっとした細かい部分を、時間をかけてじっくり見てみよう。記事のタイトルの上をマウスオーバーしてみてごらん。色が変わるのが分かった?これはhover(ホバー)っていって、ほとんどのテーマではリンクの上をさわると区別できる色や何かの変化が現れるようになっている。サイドバーのリンクのどこかでマウスオーバーしてみて。何か変わった?さっきと同じ変化かな?ページ上の違う部分でリンクホバーを変化させてもいいけど、たいていは一貫して同じにしておくべきだ。それから、リンクの色も見てごらん。他のテキストより目立つように、どんな色が使われているかな?

こういうちょっとした部分や、ページのどこにそういったものがあるのかに注意を払うのは大事なことだ。そのうち、例えばページ上部の青色ボックス内のタイトルのリンク色のような細部に手をつけたくなるだろう。それがヘッダーって言う名前だって分かってたら、スタイルシート(ウェブページの見た目を調整するファイル)の中の header 部分に変更を加えればいいって分かるからね。

手早くひととおり見て回ろう

今のところトップページ(ホームページ)を見ると、記事がひとつだけあるだろう。そこで記事のタイトルをクリックすると、その記事の独立したページに行くことができる。最初に見る君のサイトのホームページには一番最近の記事が表示されるようになっていて、それぞれの記事のタイトルが個別記事ページにリンクされているんだ。single(個別)記事ページをホームページと違った見た目にデザインしてあるテーマもある。

WordPress Default Theme - Single Post Look

繰り返しになるけど、個別記事ページでもレイアウトをじっくり見てみて、今度はどういったところが違うかを探してみよう。ヘッダーは何か違う?サイズや色は?サイドバーはある?WordPressのデフォルトテーマでは、個別記事ページになるとサイドバーはなくなる。じっくり見て違いに注目してみよう。

投稿は普通、関連するトピックをひとつにまとめられるよう、カテゴリー内に入っている。今のところ君のサイトにはひとつしかカテゴリーがないけど、そのうちもっとたくさん欲しくなるはずだ。ホームページで、サイドバーにあるカテゴリーをくりっくしてみてごらん。そしたら、そのカテゴリー内の記事だけを表示するページに移動する。ここでも他のページと何が違うかよく見ておいてね。

Archives(アーカイブ)でも同じことをやってみよう。今のところひとつしか投稿がないかもしれないけど、ページのレイアウトを見てみてごらん。他のページと同じ?違っている?

WordPress 管理パネルををテスト運転してみる

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WordPress Admin Dashboard
Now that you have an idea of how your site looks and what the different layout sections are called, it's time to test drive the WordPress Administration. This is like familiarizing yourself with the dashboard of your new website. In fact, the first page you see after logging in is called The The Dashboard.

The Dashboard is a new feature in WordPress v1.5. It helps to keep you up to date on new and interesting bits of information from the many WordPress resources. In the corner it also features a list of the most recent activity you've done on your site.

Across the top of the Admin screen is the main menu, which says:

The links in the above list will take you to a series of articles that will guide you step-by-step through every aspect of the Admin panels. You're anxious to get started, so for now, let's start with the Users panel.

Click on the Users tab. The screen will change and you will see the panel called Profile. This is where you will enter information about you, the author and administrator of the site. In the next tab called Authors and Users you can set up more authors. Let's stick with you for right now. Fill in the information and click Update Profile when done.

Now, let's look at the powerful feature functions of the WordPress Admin.

サイトの見た目を手早く変更する

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The Presentation Panel
The Presentation panel allows you to change the look of your site using Themes. Themes are presentation styles that completely change the look of your site. Designed by WordPress users, there are hundreds of themes available for you to choose from. In your Presentation panel, you will see two themes, classic and default. To try this quick-change process, simply select Classic and then click View Site to see how it looks. Wow, you have another look and nothing else on the site has changed. It's that easy.

Go back to the Presentation panel (Back button on your browser) and select Default to bring the design back to what you had. To see it again, click View Site, and there it is. Honestly, it is that simple.

投稿する・記事を管理する

Back in the Admin panel, take a look at the Write panel, and the Manage panel. You can use the tabs under the Write Menu to write posts and Pages. Using the tabs under the Manage menu, you can manage the posts and Pages in your site.

Let's start by making your first test post in the Write Post tab.

If the screen looks a little intimidating, the Codex article on Writing a Post will take you step-by-step through the process of writing a post. Take a moment to read through the article and post your first entry and then return to this article and we'll take you onto the next step.

If you are in a hurry, then simply fill in the blanks, one by one, in the post beginning with the title and then write a little test message in the post window. This is just for a test, so you can write anything you want. When you are done, click PUBLISH below the post entry window and it is done. You will then see a blank Write a Post screen and you're ready to write another one. Go ahead. But do only three to four entries. We have more exciting work ahead of us.

Now that you've gotten a feel for writing posts, you can view your posts by clicking View Site at the top of the screen. Now it's time to get down to the real work.

計画を立ててみよう

All good plans come from a good plan. Sounds redundant, but true. If you want to create a good and solid website, you need a good and solid plan. I know it's hard to do, and I know you want to keep poking and playing with this exciting program, but it is time to take a break away from your computer and turn to the old paper and pen. That's right, we're going back in time to when people actually wrote things down.

On a piece of notebook paper (or whatever is laying around) it's time to describe your site. Take five to twenty minutes to come up with a purpose for your site, or better yet, call it your Mission Statement.

Answer the following questions:

  1. What am I going to do with this?
  2. Who is going to read this?
  3. What kinds of information will I be posting?
  4. Why am I doing this?
  5. Who am I doing this for?
  6. How often am I going to be posting and adding information?

Now, compile this information into a paragraph so it looks like this:

This website will be dedicated to X, Y, and Z,

and cover the topics of A, B, and C. The audience will

be __________ ________________ _______. I will be adding

posts every _____________ about ________ _______ ______________.

I am doing this because _____________ _____________ __________________.


情報を使って

From this information, we've gathered a lot of information. We've uncovered information on how you might layout and design your site. If you know your audience is mostly made up of young people under the age of 25, you will probably want a fashionable look ranging from wild colors and crazy graphics to dark foreboding tones. Something appropriate for that generation. If you are providing factual information about a serious subject, then you will probably want a more conservative look where the information is more important that a lot of pop and flash.

You probably already have a design idea in mind, or you will be copying over from your previous site, but take a moment to use this information to reconsider your design, and to see how what you want will work with the WordPress options.

You have also uncovered the possible categories for your site. The topics and subjects you will be covering are listed in your purpose statement. Let's say your purpose statement said,

"The website will be dedicated to providing news and information on computers, web pages, and the Internet and cover the topics of computer tips, web page design, and Internet news."

Your topics are your categories. Write your categories down below your purpose paragraph and notes about your web page design.

Now, what subcategories might be under these topics. Under Computer Tips, you might want to segregate them by Windows, Linux, and Mac. Or maybe Software and Hardware. You can have sub-sub-categories, but let's stop with subcategories for right now. Write these down.

Remember the question about why you are doing this? Is it because you have valuable and timely information or knowledge to share, because you want to talk about a subject that interests you, or maybe because you just think it will be fun to do. Why not? Everyone's doing it!

Understanding the timeliness of the information you want to present on your site helps you organize the information on your website. Your website is organized by several different methods. If the date of when you posted the information is critical to the success of the page, then having links to your posts referenced by date is important. If the information itself is more important and timeless, then having your posts referenced by category is the best choice.

Have you noticed that you are starting to layout your website? If you remember our earlier test drive of your new WordPress website, we examined the sidebar menu. This is the area where your past posts are organized. If you take another look (yes, you can go back to your computer for a moment), you will see the sidebar is laid out in a list by Archives by date, Categories by category, and may even feature a calendar (turned off in the Default Theme but visible in the Classic Theme).

As you layout your website on paper, consider whether you want both categories and dates, or just one of them in your sidebar. What information you have and how you want to help the user find the information is critical to your website design.

どんな情報をシェアしたいか

As you think about what information the user will need to know, you have to consider what information you are willing to share with them. Part of that information may include how to contact you, the purpose of the site, who you are and your expertise, and get to know who you are.

WordPress v1.5 offers a new feature called Pages which makes the process of presenting this information in an easier fashion. Pages, similar to posts, are most commonly used to present unchanging information such as Pages for About Us, Contact Us, Sign Up for Our Mailing List, and other static information. Before creating your individual Pages, you need to think about what information you would like the Page to hold. Write down the possible Page titles and describe the information you are willing to share online on each Page.

コメント

Part of the fun of WordPress is the ability to have viewers leave comments on your site. It creates a dynamic interchange between you and the viewer. Do you want comments on your posts? Comments on posts come in a variety of forums, from pat on the backs (Good job! Like the post!) to extensive conversations and commentary about the posts turning into long chats. Or maybe you are seeking comments that add to the information you've posted. How you present your comment form, and if you do, invites people to comment.

Comments can also take up a lot of time, responding to them and moderating them. If they are critical to your site, then include them and consider how you want them presented. Go back to your test site, the first post created at the time of installation includes a sample comment. You can even make a few comments yourself on the posts you created. Take a look at how they are laid out and consider how you might want them to look to fit into the design and layout of your site.

When you have reached your decision about how you want to handle comments, take time to read through the article on comments and WordPress discussion options to help you set those features.

With this basic information, you are ready to return to your computer and start laying out your site and setting it up.

サイトの設定

Before you get to the graphic look of your site, let's do a little more administration to your site to set it up. Let's start with making those categories written down on your list.

カテゴリーの作成

In the Manage > Categories tab, click Add Category and fill in the information about your category. Continue to add your parent categories, going down the list. Hold off on entering sub-categories until all the main categories are entered.

NOTE: You can add any new categories any time, but make a note of the fact that categories can be sorted in WordPress in two ways: by name (alphabetically) or by ID number. As you enter the categories, they are assigned an ID number. It is difficult to change this, so if you don't want your categories sorted alphabetically, enter them in the order you want to see them presented on the screen.
WordPress Admin Manage Categories

When you have the parent categories entered, enter your sub-categories. In the pull down menu for Parent Category, you can select the parent to the sub-category you are adding. When you view your categories in the Manage > Categories panel, you will see the categories listed like this:

Computer Tips

- Windows
- Linux
- Mac

Internet News
Web Page Design

- Web Standards
- WordPress
- - Plugins
- - Themes

カテゴリー内に記事を入れる

Let's put some of your test posts into categories so you can see how this works.

WordPress Admin Manage Posts

From the Manage > Category panel, click on the tab for Posts. You should see the test posts you entered here. To the right are three links that say: View - Edit - Delete. Click on Edit to edit one of the posts. On the right side of the Edit Post screen you will now see your Categories. Choose one of them by clicking in the box next to it. Then scroll down the page and click SAVE. Repeat this for your other test posts, putting each one in a different category.

Now view your page by clicking View Site at the top of the Admin panel. Do you see the categories listed in the sidebar now? Great. If you are missing a category, that usually means that there are no posts in it. This is the default function of WordPress, so not to worry. When you add a post to the "missing" category, it will appear on your web pages. Click on one of the categories and you will be taken to a page for just that category. You should see the posts that went into that category. This is a generated Category page.

Now, click on the Archives for the month showing. Now you are visiting a generated page of your posts listed in chronological order for this month - well, specifically for today only. Two methods of finding the same information.

スパム対策

There is more to think about when it comes to having comments on your site. Unfortunately we live in a world where spam is a fact of life. It is recommended that you begin battling the comment spammers with the helpful article, Introduction to Dealing with Comment Spam.

What is Next

You've now done all the basics for your new WordPress website. You know how to write a post, create a category, and how to view your site's information by category and archive. You can start the customization process, and when you are done, don't forget to delete your test posts! Then start writing some wonderful information to share with your new-found public!

WordPress サイトをカスタマイズする

Once you are familiar with how WordPress works, it's time to get creative and start customizing. The tutorial now splits into different subjects that require no order. From here on you can do whatever you want, adding and subtracting, perfecting and scrambling your site at will. The amount of effort you put into the site is now up to you. You can work with the two WordPress Themes that came with the installation, or seek out another Theme that better meets your needs. You can totally customize all the links and information, or get serious and completely re-design the entire site to do whatever you want. You have the basics, the rest is up to your imagination.

Finding a WordPress Theme
Look for one that better suits the look you desire on your site.
Customizing the Look
When you are ready to plunge into the code, you can customize the look and layout of the site through CSS and modifing the Themes (or create your own).
Enhance Your Site with Plugins
Plugins add function and sometimes fun to your site. There are hundreds of different plugins from adding custom links like related articles to your sidebar to adding weather reports.


WordPress テーマ

There are hundreds of WordPress Themes to choose from. All do basically the same thing but graphically present the information in myriad ways. Choose a few that look interesting to you, and meet your audience's needs and your desires, and then test drive them following the test drive instructions above. Click through the whole site, the categories and archives as well as the individual posts to see how the Theme handles each one. The look may be nice on the front page, but if it handles things in a way you don't like on the single post, then you will have to dig into the code and make changes. Not ready for that, try another theme.

If you run into problems, check out the Codex's Troubleshooting Themes article.


見た目をカスタマイズ

If you are familiar with CSS, HTML, and even PHP and MySQL, consider customizing the Theme to your own needs. This is not for the timid, and it is for the informed and experienced. If you want to expand your web page design and development skills, WordPress can help:

WordPress プラグイン

WordPress Plugins are also known as add-ons or extensions. They are software scripts that add functions and events to your website. They cover the gamut from up-to-date weather reports to simple organization of your posts and categories. Plugins are designed by volunteer contributors and enthusiasts who like challenges and problem solving. They are usually fairly simple to install through the WordPress Admin Plugin panel, just follow the instructions provided by the plugin author. Remember, these are free and non-essential. If you have any problems with plugins, contact the plugin author's website or plugin source first, then search the Internet for help with that specific plugin, and if you haven't found a solution, then visit the WordPress forums for more help.

さらに一歩進んで

The exciting thing about WordPress is that there are few limits. Thousands of people are using WordPress for blogging and for running their websites. All have a different look and different functions on their sites.

What you do from here is up to you, but here are a few places to take that first step beyond the basics:

もっとヘルプが必要?